Read e-book online A History of the Crusades: Volume 1, The First Crusade and PDF

By Steven Runciman

ISBN-10: 052106161X

ISBN-13: 9780521061612

Sir Steven Runciman's 3 quantity A heritage of the Crusades, one of many nice classics of English ancient writing, is being reissued. This quantity bargains thoroughly with the 1st campaign and the basis of the dominion of Jerusalem. As Runciman says in his preface: 'Whether we regard the Crusades because the so much large and so much romantic of Christian adventures, or because the final of the barbarian invasions, they shape a principal truth in medieval historical past. sooner than their inception the centre of our civilization used to be positioned in Byzantium and within the lands of the Arab caliphate. earlier than they light out the hegemony in civilization had handed to western Europe. Out of this transference sleek heritage used to be born.'

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Travel overland, though slow, was far cheaper and easier than travel by sea, and far better suited to large companies. So long as the pilgrims were orderly they could count on hospitable treatment from the peasants of the Empire; and for the earlier part of their journey the Cluniacs were now building hostels along the route. There were several hospices in Italy, some restricted to the use of Norsemen. There was a great hospice at Melk in Austria. 1 At Constantinople the Hospice of Samson was reserved for the use of western pilgrims; and the Cluniacs kept up an establishment at Rodosto in the suburbs.

The vassal state was to pay heavy taxes, from which the Christians were to be exempt, directly to the imperial treasury. Special privileges and protection was to be given to imperial merchants and caravans. These humiliating terms seemed to foreshadow the end of Moslem power in Syria. 1 Before Aleppo had fallen the Emperor was murdered in Constantinople by his Empress and her lover, his cousin John Tzimisces. Nicephorus was a grim, unlovable man. Despite his victories, he had been hated at Constantinople for his fmancial exactions and corruption and his bitter quarrel with the Church.

Xm, p. 582.. 1 1 20 The Dhimmis and exactions, than against his people and religion. 1 Even the Orthodox, finding themselves spared the persecution that they had feared and paying taxes that, in spite of the jizya demanded from the Christians, were far lower than in Byzantine times, showed small inclination to question their destiny. A few mountain tribes, Mardaites of the Lebanon and the Taurus, still kept up the struggle; but they fought from lawlessness and pride rather than for the Faith. 3 The effect of the Arab conquest was to fix the Churches of the East permanently in the positions in which they then stood.

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A History of the Crusades: Volume 1, The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem by Steven Runciman


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