By Kenneth M. Setton, Robert Lee Wolff, Harry W. Hazard
The six volumes of A heritage of the Crusades will stand because the definitive heritage of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of knowledge and research of the heritage, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval global.
Read or Download A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, 1189-1311 (History of the Crusades (University of Wisconsin Press)) PDF
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Extra resources for A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, 1189-1311 (History of the Crusades (University of Wisconsin Press))
And F. Giunta, "Sicilia e Tunisia nei secoli XIV e XV," in Giunta, Mediotvo nuditerraneo, pp. 137-190. , pp. 53- uS. For a description of African cities, see MacG. 'Afrique," Journal asiatigue, ser. 3, III (r84z), 160 If. r8 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES 1l tantamount to open denunciation of Fa~d suzerainty over Tunisia. The mosque of Kairawan was restored to Sunnite Islam and the name of the 'Abblisid caliph al-Qa'im replaced that of the Fatimid in the Friday prayer. To punish this disloyalty, the Fatimid caliph al-Mustan~ir persuaded the wild beduin tribes of the Banu-Hilal, Banii-Sulaim, and others to invade Tunisia in 1052.
As at the start of the Second Crusade, so again he found himself abandoned by the French and threatened by a new coalition of all his enemies. Meanwhile, however, Roger could stand before an admiring Europe as a conqueror in Moslem Africa. " 22 Contemporaries looked on Roger's colonial outposts in Africa, along with the Christian advances in Spain and Portugal, as the only territorial gains made during the time of the Second Crusade, and as in some measure a compensation for its failure. Yet in Roger's African venture, crusading zeal and motives, although not wholly absent, played a lesser role than did Sicilian political traditions, economic needs, and military interests.
Facing embarrassing criticism and accusations, Louis and Conrad hoped to retrieve their honor and to acquire fame in new enterprises. T hus, upon his arrival at the imperial court - in a Byzantine ship in order to escape Roger's spies Conrad agreed to conclude a treaty of alliance with Manuel on terms which included, among others, the renunciation of German claims to Apulia. 19 Meanwhile, at Potenza late in August 1 149, Louis met Roger, who was only too eager to establish a close relationship with him.
A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, 1189-1311 (History of the Crusades (University of Wisconsin Press)) by Kenneth M. Setton, Robert Lee Wolff, Harry W. Hazard
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