By Graeme Barker
This vast learn records the long term human payment background of the Biferno Valley in central-southern Italy, from its earliest profession within the Stone Age correct as much as the current day. Integrating the thoughts of archaeology, background and geography, Barker indicates how payment within the Valley is inextricably associated with the parallel tale of panorama improvement, his issues and topics together with: methods to Mediterranean panorama historical past; the fashionable panorama; Methodologies of the Biferno Valley Survey; The common panorama and its evolution; Early prehsitoric payment; the 1st agricultural groups; Iron Age chiefdoms (c.1000-500 BC); Pentri, Frentani and the beginnings of urbanization (c.500--80 BC); Roman cities and territories (c.80 BC-600 AD); The evolution of hilltop villages (AD 600-1500); Feudalism and the `Southern query' (AD 1500 to the present).
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Extra resources for A Mediterranean Valley: Landscape Archaeology and Annales History in the Biferno Valley
As described in Chapter One, the Biferno Valley Survey took the British School's South Etruria Survey as its general role model in setting out to apply a group of archaeological methodologies in landscape analysis to a selected study area, to try to reconstruct and understand its settlement history. On the other hand, like most archaeological projects of this kind, the Biferno Valley Survey grew organically and altered focus within the overall research design as particular contributors joined the team, new and unexpected sets of data emerged, specific research problems came to the fore, and local circumstances changed - for example, new accommodation offered, the weather making ploughing unexpectedly late, or a request from the Superintendency to assist with a particular project in progress.
The villages on the right-hand side of the valley were connected to the Sannitica by roads along the spurs on which they are located; tracks led down from them to the river, but crossings were few. In medieval times there were isolated bridges such as the Ponte San Antuono (Fig. 10), now submerged in the Guardialfiera lake, but few lasted long before the pressure of the torrential waters of the winter and spring floods. Between 1845 and 1881 no bridge existed across the Biferno upstream of Portocannone.
3 Vita-Finzi's model of Younger Fill alluviation. (Adapted from Vita-Finzi, 1969: fig. 37) surface, but rather a stairway of surfaces separated by breaks of slope where the ground was steep. At some stage after the formation of these sediments, downcutting took place (which he noted in places was still in operation today), incising stream channels into the alluvial fill, flattening the longitudinal profiles of the valleys and restoring their stepped character. 'It is this sequence of events - valley filling followed by downcutting - which has given the Mediterranean valleys their characteristic form: a well-defined channel cut into a broad, smooth valley floor' (VitaFinzi, 1969: 91).
A Mediterranean Valley: Landscape Archaeology and Annales History in the Biferno Valley by Graeme Barker
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