By Naveed Sattar; Mike Lean
Weight problems is a highly pricey and extending challenge all over the world, resulting in incapacity, reproductive difficulties, melancholy and speeded up metabolic and vascular ailments in a wide share of guys, ladies and youngsters. The ABC of Obesity is a brand new advisor so one can reduction its potent administration, addressing concerns akin to food plan, workout, self-worth, drug remedy and surgical procedure. fresh proof is used to focus on common difficulties, winning treatments, and the most typical causes.
Written through prime specialists, this can be a largely obtainable textual content and an vital advisor for all common practitioners, junior medical professionals, nurses, and different healthcare execs who're interested by the therapy and learn of this universal situation
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As hypertension is common in this age group, its absolute effect on CHD is high, whereas that of the metabolic syndrome (by any of the three definitions) is not. Obesity, however, was not an important predictor in this study. 015 6 4 2 0 ≤50 years >50 years Age stratified incidence of new cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, revascularisation, cardiac death) in patients with or without metabolic syndrome (according to modified criteria of American Treatment Panel III). Adapted from Reinhard et al (Am J Cardiol 2006;97:964-7) Practical strategy for managing raised waist circumference in relation to cardiovascular disease risk Waist /score for cardiovascular risk Treatment Circumference < 80 cm in women, < 94 cm in men (low risk) Requires no intervention (avoid weight gain and stay below these levels) Requires health promotion Circumference ≥ 80 cm in women, and public health measures ≥ 94 cm men, and < 10% risk of for self directed treatment to cardiovascular disease* over next 10 prevent further weight gain years (raised risk) Requires effective treatment Circumference 80-88 cm in women and 94-102 cm men, and > 10% risk to lose 5-10% body weight and to prevent further weight of cardiovascular disease* over next gain 10 years (high risk) Requires effective treatment Circumference > 88 cm in women and > 102 cm in men irrespective of to lose 5-10% body weight 10 year risk of cardiovascular disease* and to prevent further weight (high risk for other medical problems gain associated with obesity or intra-abdominal fat accumulation) *Risk based on Joint British Society’s guidelines (or equivalent); cardiovascular risk score of > 20% requires management in line with the society’s guidelines Three potential sources of bias could lead to underestimation of the effect of obesity on the development of vascular disease.
A further problem for health planners is that obesity and its secondary health costs are associated with more socially deprived and minority population groups. Any measures based on cognitive, educative interventions will tend to benefit more educated and affluent people, thus accentuating the social health gradient. Measures directed at changing the price, availability, and nutritional characteristics of food may have a positive effect across social groups. Over 90% of the weight gain seen in US adults results from a positive energy balance of <100 kcal a day Childhood overweight and obesity x Overweight and obesity are increasing in children of all ages, and “obese” teenagers enter adult life already with a BMI > 25 x Although obese children do not often have immediate health problems, and most obese adults were not obese as children, many obese children become obese adults x Efforts to prevent obesity in childhood and its progression into adulthood are fuelled by a belief that it might be possible to influence lifelong behavioural patterns The World Health Organization has convened a ministerial conference on “counteracting obesity” in Istanbul, Turkey, in November this year, where a charter on counteracting obesity will be signed Core actions proposed by WHO x Reducing commercial pressure on people (particularly children) to consume high energy products x Reducing fat, sugar, and salt in manufactured products x Enabling easier and cheaper access to healthy food x Introducing measures to improve food and increase physical activity in schools and the workplace x Promoting cycling and walking by better urban design and transport policies x Creating opportunities in local environments for people to be more physically active in their leisure time x Encouraging health services to provide advice on diet and physical activity, and promote exclusive breast feeding WHO has advocated the involvement of the different government sectors, as well as the private sector and civil society.
The numbers are so great (and rising), however, that individual medical care becomes impractical and prohibitively expensive. Currently, the cost of obesity to a country’s health service is estimated at up to 9%, and the overall social cost of the condition is seen as a major hindrance to economic development. An even larger proportion of the population is overweight, with increased morbidity. Virtually all the costs (personal, health, and economic) of obesity are met in adulthood and result from fat that has accumulated in adulthood, but there is a likely additional cost due to inactivity and overweight in childhood that should also be considered.
ABC of obesity by Naveed Sattar; Mike Lean
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