By Keith W. Waldron
This publication presents a complete and systematic reference at the complex biomass restoration and conversion tactics utilized in biorefineries. the 1st a part of the booklet reports advancements in biorefining tactics, via a overview of other varieties of biorefinery platform. the second one half the booklet discusses the big variety of additional price items from biorefineries, from biofuel to biolubricants and bioadhesives.
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Additional resources for Advances in biorefineries: Biomass and waste supply chain exploitation
Scarce metals). Scarce metals are increasingly used in clean alternative energy-producing technologies. , 2012) and we must take this into account when modifying our energy and manufacturing infrastructure, taking advantage of the whole periodic table. This is especially relevant to the area of catalysis: re-usable catalytic metals are seen as better reagents than hazardous reagents such as AlCl3. But many of the most interesting catalytic metals are also becoming scarce and their production process can be resource intensive and wasteful, making their recovery and reuse essential.
This past paragraph shows you how tightly knit these issues are, illustrating how important it is to assess the greenness of a process through each of its steps, from the use of raw materials to end-use through manufacturing and use. One change can affect several steps and it is important to assess a process through its full life cycle even though it is time-consuming and its quality is dependent on the data used. Such a tool can help us assess the use of bio-processes versus chemo-processes, for example.
The consequent exploitation of food-grade feedstock has stimulated an on-going debate regarding food vs. fuel. Additional arguments concerning the use of land for producing non-food feedstock are developing around the issue of indirect land use change. A further challenge to successful biorefining is the requirement to operate at scales and efficiencies which are both economically viable and environmentally sustainable. However, whilst biorefining approaches are often sought to produce environmentally beneficial products that replace current fossil-derived materials, they are competing with wellestablished products which have a number of key economic advantages.
Advances in biorefineries: Biomass and waste supply chain exploitation by Keith W. Waldron
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