By Alexander J. Field
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Extra resources for Altruistically Inclined?: The Behavioral Sciences, Evolutionary Theory, and the Origins of Reciprocity
An excep tion is when credible threats to harm are made and then not carried out as in hostage situations, in which captives end up bonding with their captors in a seemingly irrational fashion (de Waa1 1 989, 237) . If we think deeply about the categorical imperative, it becomes clear that what we expect of non-kin is disproportionately weighted toward the former. When we encounter strangers our greatest expectation of others is that they not harm us (and our duty to them is perceived as symmetric) .
It is not some reified force that exists separately from the humans whose behavior and preferences generate and sustain it, although it may be per ceived as such, a perception that is strengthened when multiple parties are involved. See also Barry and Hardin 1 982 (385). 32 Altruistically Inclined? Even were the assumption of indefinite interaction more widely applicable, we would want to understand how environments in which it could reasonably be assumed developed in the first place . A central and unresolved problem in strategic analysis, therefore, the one that Hobbes identified, is explaining how rational individuals transition from single play environments to those where repetition may more reasonably be anticipated.
26. "Behavioral economics" should not be confused with behaviorist psychology. Behavioral economics emphasizes the study of what individuals actually do, as opposed to what economic theory predicts they will do or counsels they should do. Behavioral econo mists have no inherent aversion to the concept of modularity, which implies domain specific mental organs. Such a concept, however, is anathema for behaviorist psychologists . CHAPTER 1 Evidence and Logic This chapter develops broad contours of the book's argument, adduces additional experimental and observational evidence, and establishes foun dations for the more detailed treatments of chapters 2 through 6.
Altruistically Inclined?: The Behavioral Sciences, Evolutionary Theory, and the Origins of Reciprocity by Alexander J. Field
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